The Hope probe launched on an H2-A rocket from Tanegashima spaceport, and is now on a 500-million-km journey to study Mars' weather and climate.
Two previous attempts to launch the probe in the past week had to be called off because of adverse weather.
Hope's arrival in February 2021 is set to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the UAE's formation.
The UAE craft is one of three missions to Mars launching this month.
Read more: UAE launches historic first mission to Mars